Correlation Between Undiagnosed Depression, Anxiety Disorder, and Hypertension in Cililin Primary Health Center: An Analytical Study

Author : A. Leisyah, A. F. Khalid
Upload Date : 19-04-2018

Background: Depression, anxiety disorder, and hypertension have been hypothesized and studied for their association. Psychosocial stressor, depression, and anxiety disorder could raise autonomic arousal via the hypothalamic-pituitary axis which increase catecholamine. This phenomenon could increase the risk of hypertension.1 if this condition left untreated, it could make the hypertension harder to control. This study objective is to find the correlation between depression, anxiety disorder, and hypertension.

Method: Data was taken from patients in PROLANIS activity at Cililin Primary Health Center. Patient’s blood pressure was measured by standard sphygmomanometer following AHA recommendation. Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale were used to diagnose and determine the severity of depression and anxiety disorder. Association between depression, anxiety, and hypertension were determined using the spearman correlation test.

Result: Fifty one patient were found in this study, which 36 (70.6%) of them were female (Figure 1). There was no significant difference between elderly (n= 30) and adult in this study. The average age of those patients were 58 ± 10.25 years old. Data showed that 30 patients (58.8%) already had hypertension more than 5 years (Figure 2). Data also showed that 26 patients (51%) had poor control of their hypertension (Figure 3). Mild Depression was found in 34 patients (66.7%) in this study, while moderate depression was found in 1 patient (2%) (Figure 4). Mild to moderate anxiety disorder was found in 28 patients (54.9%), while severe anxiety disorder was found in 6 patients (11.8%) (Figure 5). Among those who poorly control their hypertension (n=26), there was a weak correlation between depression score (r=0.155), anxiety score (r=0.113) with hypertension.

Conclusion: Weak association between depression, anxiety, and hypertension have been found in this study. However, many other factors can contribute to hypertension or affective disorder. Screening for depression and anxiety disorder in hypertension patients is recommended to improve the outcome of the treatment.

KEYWORDS : Hypertension, Anxiety, Depression

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