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Betel Nut Chewing in Rural East Nusa Tenggara: Prevalence and Relationship to Hypertension

Author : F. Wahyudi
Upload Date : 19-04-2018

Background: Betel nut chewing is still a custom performed as a tradition in eastern part of  Indonesia such as East Nusa Tenggara and Papua. Betel nut is chewed by 600 million people worldwide and it has been linked to cardiovascular disease. Hypertension is the major driver of the cardiovascular epidemic facing Indonesia in the 21th century and the prevalence of hypertension in Indonesia is about 32.8%. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of betel nut chewing in Waingapu, the capital of East Sumba and determine its effects on hypertension.

Methods: This study is an observational analytic using cross sectional design. The data was collected by interviewing and measuring the blood pressure of the respondents, selected by consecutive sampling in  general hospital of in Waingapu, the capital of East Sumba in East Nusa Tenggara Province. Extracted data from questionnaire included socio-demography, the habit of betel nut chewing, and cofounding factor such as body mass index, smoking, comorbid disease.  Hypertension was defined by a  systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg.  Analysis was done by univariate analysis for descriptive and bivariate analysis using the Chi-square or Fischer exact test to determine the significance.

Result: Univariate analysis showed that betel nut was chewed by 89% of 101 total subjects (66.6% of men, 33.4% of women) and 77.7% betel nut chewer with hypertension. Bivariate analysis showed that betel nut chewing was associated with hypertension (p 0.025).

Conclusion: Betel nut chewing was more common in men and it is likely contributing to hypertension in East Sumba.

KEYWORDS : betel nut chewing, hypertension, East Sumba, East Nusa Tenggara


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