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Epidemiology of Hypertension and Associated Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Indonesia Population

Author : M. F. Adda’i, A. B. Setyani, T. Indriyati
Upload Date : 19-04-2018

Background: Rapid growing of urbanization of Indonesia as developing country showed parallels with increasing burden of chronic disease, especially cardiovascular disease. Report said that developing country contribute 80% of world cardiovascular death. Indonesia strongly needs sufficient epidemiology data to undertake the upcoming problem. Therefore, in 2015, Indonesia Ministry of Health released regulation (Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan) number 71 to screen all of citizens the non-communicable disease risk factors including cardiovascular disease.

Objective: In the present study, data from a population-based cross-sectional in Indonesia were used to know the prevalence of hypertension and analyze the associated cardiovascular risk factors.

Methods: Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP),  BMI, personal and family history of cardiovascular disease risk (smoking, diabetes mellitus, stroke, cardiac disease, dyslipidemia) were measured during 2017 using standardized protocol aged 18 until 87 years old among 13.472 Central Jakarta residents, Jakarta, Indonesia. Data were analyzed statistically using SPSS version 20.0.

Results: Mean SBP among males and females were 126.9±20.1 mmHg and 127.29±20.9 mmHg (p>0.05). Mean DBP among males and females were 79.5±11.2 mmHg and 78.9±11.7 (p<0.05). The prevalence of hypertension using AHA 2017 criteria (total: 50,2%, males: 14.8%, females: 35.5%) was greater than using JNC 7 criteria (total: 36.8%, males: 10.6%, females: 26.2%). High prevalence of overweight (total: 30.5%, males: 8,45%, females 22,1%) and obese (total: 15.4%, males: 3.2%, females: 12,2%) were noted. Multivariate analysis found that risk of hypertension was higher among overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) with OR 1.84; 95% CI [1.55-2.18]; p<0.0001 and obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) with OR: 2.31; 95% CI [1.92-2.77]; p<0.0001 compared with underweight. The increasing age (OR 7.55; 95%CI[6.23-9.08]; p<0.0001), presence of diabetes mellitus (OR 1.2; 95%CI[1.06-1.36]; p<0.05) and family history of hypertension (OR 1.94; 95%CI[1.78-2.15]; p<0.0001) also improved significantly hypertension risk. Age and BMI were significantly and positively correlated with SBP, DBP, and MAP, coefficient correlation (r) ranging between 0.094 and 0.357 p<0.0001.

Conclusions: Our result revealed the high prevalence of hypertension and associated risk factors in real-world setting. The risk of hypertension was increased with presence of DM, family history of hypertension, increasing age and BMI among Indonesia population. Our data suggest that we need intensified action to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease.

KEYWORDS : Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Hypertension, Epidemiology


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